Anal Disorders

Anal Fistulae

Anal Fistulae

An anal fistula (or perianal fistula) is an abnormal channel that connects the inside of the anus to the skin around the anus. It can appear at various ages.

It is most commonly found in patients with Crohn's disease, but it can also affect people with systemic diseases and cancer, or appear as a complication after surgery.

Anal Fissure

Anal Fissure

An anal fissure is a small longitudinal tear in the skin and mucosa of the anal canal. Its main symptom is pain and discomfort during defecation, and there are often traces of blood on the paper.

An anal fissure is a difficult-to-heal wound that can heal spontaneously for several months.

Ointments and suppositories prescribed by the doctor are effective to support in the treatment process, but surgery may be necessary in certain cases.

Hemorrhoids

Hemorrhoids

Hemorrhoids are three blood-filled lumps made of sponge-like tissue, that form the physiological seal of the anus. Their enlargement results in disease symptoms - they can cause pain, crack, bleed, or, when extremely enlarged, prolapse out of the anus during defecation.

Symptoms of enlarged hemorrhoids can be alleviated with ointments and suppositories, however, surgery offers effective curative treatment.

Hemorrhoidal Thrombosis

Hemorrhoidal Thrombosis

Hemorrhoidal thrombosis is otherwise known as marginal anal thrombosis. They occur as a result of the rupture of one of the subcutaneous veins surrounding the anus, most often due to increased strain (during diarrhea or constipation).

They are often confused with hemorrhoids, but those are two different diseases with a different basis.

The main symptom of hemorrhoidal thrombosis is the appearance of a small painful lump near the anus, which may become dark in color over time.

Genital Warts

Genital Warts

Condyloma (or genital warts) is a condition caused by infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV) of the skin and epithelium around the genitals and anus.

HPV infection is most commonly spread through sexual contact. Small pink warts develop at the site of the infection site, the size of which increases over time.

Immune-compromised individuals are particularly at risk.

Obstetric Anal Sphincter Injuries, Fecal, and Gas Incontinence

Obstetric Anal Sphincter Injuries, Fecal, and Gas Incontinence

Postpartum damage to the anal sphincters is one of the most common complications of natural labor. Initially, they may not produce any symptoms, especially when the damage is surgically repaired, but over time, women may experience gas and fecal incontinence.

Much less frequently, the same symptoms appear in men as a complication of anal surgery, inflammatory bowel diseases or deterioration of the pelvic floor muscles with age.

Anal Cancer

Anal Cancer

Anal cancer is most often caused by a previous infection with an oncogenic strain of the human papillomavirus (HPV). In principle, the course and effects of infection are the same as for cervical cancer.

Regular cytology of the anal canal in people at risk offers the best preventive approach. The first symptoms of anal cancer can be easily underestimated because they are similar to hemorrhoids (discomfort, pain, bleeding), only with time systemic symptoms such as anemia, weakness, or weight loss are added.

Other Anal Disorders (Body Folds, Pruritus, Prolapse)

Other Anal Disorders (Body Folds, Pruritus, Prolapse)

Anal skin deformities (aka anodermal skin folds or external hemorrhoids) usually develop in women during childbirth when the skin around the anus is subject to excessive stretching. Sometimes they are only a cosmetic defect, but in some cases, they can contribute to discomfort or pruritus. Anal pruritus can accompany both chronic diarrhea and the majority of proctological diseases. Anal prolapse most often affects women in advanced age and results from the weakening of the pelvic floor muscles. Appropriate diagnostics are necessary for the proper selection of the treatment method.

Book a Visit

Book a Visit

If you suspect any of the described diseases of the anus, you should see a proctologist. This doctor will select the appropriate diagnostics, implement the appropriate treatment and direct you to additional consultations with other doctors, if necessary. Specialists who can play an auxiliary role in the process of diagnosis and treatment are a surgeon, oncologist, physiotherapist, and dietitian.

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